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Round Weatherproof box with Flood Lights (red dot Thomas-Betts brand kit) is surface mounted directly over a small gem box that is recessed into a soffit. To get into the gem box you must remove the weather proof box that is secured to the soffit. The weatherproof box and the gem box sit flush with each other with no exposure between the two.

The house conductors are pigtailed in the gem box and they come thru the center knockout in the weather proof box. The lampholders/fixture wires connect to the pigtails inside the weather proof box.

The weatherproof box is bonded to the gem box with a #14ground because it is secured to the wood soffit not directly to the gem box below it.

If this makes any sense, does this violate 314.19 or otherwise sound like a non-compliant installation?
 

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Mounting a surface box over a recessed box is a direct violation of 314.22.
You need to be able to access the recessed box without removing the surface box.

314.22 Surface Extensions.
Surface extensions shall be made by mounting and mechanically securing an extension ring over the box. Equipment grounding shall be in accordance with Part VI of Article 250.
Exception: A surface extension shall be permitted to be made from the cover of a box where the cover is designed so it is unlikely to fall off or be removed if its securing means becomes loose. The wiring method shall be flexible for a length sufficient to permit removal of the cover and provide access to the box interior, and arranged so that any grounding continuity is independent of the connection between the box and cover.
 
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