Is there any requirement in NEC which states we must, in residential wiring of lighting circuits, place a switch at every entrance to a lighted space? I've been told by my instructor to look up whether or not such a code reference exists, and I'm not finding it. Does it exist?
The requirements for switched lighting outlets in dwelling units can be found in 210.70 The switch does not need to be in the same room in most cases, nor is there any prohibition against switching several rooms with one switch. As stated by others, you'd best check to see what your AHJ expects.
Keep in mind that stairs and storage areas require switches at specific locations.
From the 2011 nEC 210.70:
(c) Where one or more lighting outlet(s) are installed for interior stairways, there shall be a wall switch at each floor level, and landing level that includes an entryway, to control the lighting outlet(s) where the stairway between floor levels has six risers or more.
Exception to (A)(2)(a), (A)(2)(b), and (A)(2)(c): In hallways, in stairways, and at outdoor entrances, remote, central, or automatic control of lighting shall be permitted.
(3) Storage or Equipment Spaces. For attics, underfloor spaces, utility rooms, and basements, at least one lighting outlet containing a switch or controlled by a wall switch shall be installed where these spaces are used for storage or contain equipment requiring servicing. At least one point of
control shall be at the usual point of entry to these spaces. The lighting outlet shall be provided at or near the equipment requiring servicing.
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